Since the s the standard biblical arguments against racial equality have become relics, embarrassments from a bygone age. The fear of such practices can by gauged by the famous trials held in Salem, Massachusetts, in and The Puritans later gave birth to the Baptists and the Congregationalists.
If religion in the Old South has become a mature field, scholarship on the era since the Civil War is still, relatively speaking, in its adolescence.
Merton explained that the connection between religious affiliation and interest in science was the result of a significant synergy between the ascetic Protestant values and those of modern science.
Tilt the prism another way, and yet another perspective emerges. This faith took shape partly under the suspicious eyes of watchful but devout whites, but, more importantly, it developed in the sacred spaces the slaves created for themselves in private worship.
In turn, as the colonies became more settled, the influence of the clergy and their churches grew. Despite many affinities with the established Church of England, New England churches operated quite differently from the older Anglican system in England. Such remains the case today, when the activist impulse has migrated rightward and lodged itself firmly in the hands of a mostly white evangelical leadership.
Evangelism turned to elaborate crusades in the 20th century when such preachers as Billy Sunday attempted to convince nonbelievers that they should "jump ship" from their ancestral Christian denominations.
Yet the dominant classes rarely have espoused theologies of equality.
White Pentecostals soon picked them up, and the two shared hymns and holy dancing. This was not an era of live and let live in the spirit of modern religious freedom or tolerance. For an outstanding collection of primary writings from the 18th century to the late 20th century, including slave narratives and memoirs, denominational histories, reminiscences, didactic and polemical material, hymn books, programs, and church records, the best place to start is Documenting the American South.
This view is less common among other Christian groups. The Church of England vacillated, leaving neither Catholics nor Protestants satisfied. Therefore, craftsmen, industrialists, and other businessmen were able to reinvest the greater part of their profits in the most efficient machinery and the most modern production methods that were based on progress in the sciences and technology.
In even sharper contrast to the other colonies, in New England most newborns were baptized by the church, and church attendance rose in some areas to 70 percent of the adult population.
Italy, whose kingdoms surrounded the nearby Vatican, remained Catholic. He believed in religious toleration, fair trade with Native Americans, and equal rights for women. Their clergy consist of bishops, priests, and deacons.
Writing in the midst of the civil rights revolution, scholars could not help but see cultural captivity when stiff-necked deacons and ushers stood cross-armed at church house doors, defending segregation now and segregation forever.
History of Religion in America Introduction The issue of religious freedom has played a significant role in the history of the United States and the remainder of North America. Like the first Reconstruction, then, the civil rights movement, sometimes called the second Reconstruction, is an unfinished revolution—nowhere more so than in southern religion.
Elizabeth spent time imprisoned in the Tower of London. Merton focused on English Puritanism and German Pietism as having been responsible for the development of the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries. Steeples grew, bells were introduced, and some churches grew big enough to host as many as one thousand worshippers.
About one-in-ten Christians express no opinion or provide other views on these matters. The Lutherans settled on the East Coast and American Midwest, and celebrated worship services in their native tongues. Protestantism had an important influence on science.
As a result, the s and s witnessed a rise in discontent and discord within the colony some argue that Virginian dissenters suffered some of the worst persecutions in antebellum America.The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic agronumericus.com religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church.
2The evangelical Protestant share of the population has dipped slightly in recent years (from % in to % in ), but more slowly than the mainline Protestant and Catholic populations. While most African Americans still remained in the South and the reality of life for those who migrated to the North did not always meet the promise of expanded opportunity, the Great Migration nevertheless set the context for important developments in African American religious life.
Religion in Colonial America: Trends, Regulations, and Beliefs. religious life was haphazard and irregular for most. How Virginia's Religious Dissenters Helped Win the American Revolution and Secured Religious Liberty (New York: Oxford University Press, ), 3.
Church attendance between and was an estimated 75 to 80 percent of the population. The Great Awakening swept the English-speaking world, as religious energy vibrated between England, Wales, Scotland and the American colonies in.
American Protestants developed a greater sense of religious freedom than their European counterparts. While the early settlers were far from tolerant in the modern sense of the term and maintained generally anti-Catholic, anti-Quaker and anti-Semitic views, religious pluralism made America fertile soil for long-term toleration.Download